Over the past decades, the number of effective and safe child vaccines available has increased. Yet, more and more parents have become concerned about vaccine safety. The authors address the following question: are vaccinations, especially in children, to be considered as mandatory treatment or should parents be entitled to choose whether to have their children vaccinated or not? In Europe, eleven countries have instituted mandates, whereas others have opted for mere recommendations and rely on information campaigns. Italy is one of those which have recently enacted legislation designed to broaden the scope of mandatory vaccinations. The paper's authors argue that it is certainly hard to draw the line between individual and collective rights, yet it is incumbent upon state authorities to foster the common interest and the public good, which gives governments a right and an obligation to promote immunisation, at least until the safety threshold is reached.