Most OECD countries divide dismissals into different types, depending on their grounds, as either disciplinary or economic. Restricted to individual dismissals, this article seeks to better understand how the differences between these two grounds with regard to statutory provisions result in the dismissal behavior of employers. Do employers choose this designation to minimize termination costs (severance payment and damages)? Using an original database of French establishments from 1999 to 2009, this article aims to analyze the factors influencing employers’ use of economic and personal dismissals, providing insights into the enforcement capability of legal dismissal rules and the part played by strategic behavior. [---]