[---] To explore the governance framework most appropriate for artificial intelligence (AI), this article first examines what new challenges AI poses to the governance framework. Then, it reviews private, national, and international efforts to meet these challenges and compares, among others, the Japanese and European initiatives that are relatively advanced. Furthermore, this article analyses how the two initiatives address the new challenges brought about by AI and investigates whether there is a need for globally harmonizing these efforts. A brief discussion on what can be done by lawyers on a global level concludes the article.