In 2017, the CJEU brought out its judgments in two cases concerning bans on the wearing of Islamic headscarves at work as possible discrimination on the grounds of religion or belief under Directive 2000/78/EC. These judgments led to heavy criticism, mainly because the CJEU did not do a rigorous proportionality test and left a number of questions open. Two recent preliminary references from courts in Germany present the CJEU with an opportunity to expand on the earlier judgments and to answer the questions they left open. [---]