The right to health, as a right to healthcare, represents the most expensive social right in Europe, significantly affecting the total budget of the Member States, both in universal and insurance healthcare systems. No healthcare system provides unlimited healthcare resources to all its users. The resources available for healthcare are limited compared with demand, and all healthcare systems, regardless of their financing and organisation, employ mechanisms to prioritise finite healthcare resources. The progressive increase in healthcare costs in a context of scarce resources, worsened by the fiscal crisis of the 1990s and economic crises spreading in Europe since 2007, has highlighted the ever more urgent need to address the fundamental issues of resource allocation and priority-setting at both European and national levels. Hence, priority-setting is arguably one of the most important health policy issues of our time at global, European and national levels.