Considers how the European arrest warrant may be used as a tool to prevent inhuman treatment and improve detention conditions. Details the non-refoulement duty in the relevant prohibition under the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union art.4, the adoption in Criminal Proceedings against Aranyosi (C-404/15 PPU) (ECJ) of a process for assessing risk to the individual, and using non-compliance as a basis for refusing extradition.