In such "exceptional cases", to use the words of the Directive, Member States may seek to remedy the situation on public-health grounds, in accordance with Article 52 and Article 62 TFEU. The outbreak of Covid-19 is indeed exceptional. Thus, the Court pointed out, the health-insurance system of the Member State of affiliation is not faced with the risk of additional costs, as it would be under Regulation 883/2004. Given this, the Court concluded, a refusal to grant authorisation cannot generally be justified under the terms of the Directive. Member States are still reluctant to accept the case law emphasising the fundamental freedom of individuals to engage health services in other Member States - a case law which is largely codified in the Cross-Border Healthcare Directive. Article 20 of Regulation 883/2004 states that, when two conditions are fulfilled, the Member State of affiliation (or the "competent institution", in the words of the Regulation) is obliged to authorise a person to go to another Member State in order to receive appropriate treatment there.